Crooze Terms of Service
Effective: 8/16/2016 – Reviewed 12/26/2021
Thank you using our services (“Services”). These Services are provided by Crooze Corporation.
Our Pricing Policy located here explains Crooze’s pricing terms.
Please read these terms of service (these “Terms”) carefully as they form a contract between you and Crooze.
By registering or using any of the Services you agree to be bound by these Terms. If you are using the Services on behalf of an organization, you are agreeing to these Terms for that organization and promising to Crooze that you have the authority to bind that organization to these Terms (in which event, “you” and “your” will refer to that organization) unless that organization has a separate paid contract in effect with us, in which event the terms of that contract will govern your use of the Service. You may use the Services only in compliance with these Terms and only if you have the power to form a contract with Crooze and are not barred under any applicable laws from doing so. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THESE TERMS, YOU MUST NOT USE THE SERVICES. Should you have any questions concerning this Agreement, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Please note that Crooze doesn’t provide warranties for the Services. This contract also limits our liability to you. See Sections 14 (NO WARRANTY) and 16 (LIMITATION OF LIABILITY) of these Terms for details.
1. CHANGES TO THESE TERMS
We reserve the right to revise these Terms from time to time. We will date and post the most current version of these Terms on the Crooze website. Any changes will be effective upon posting the revised version of these Terms (or such later effective date as may be indicated at the top of the revised Terms). Notice of other changes may be provided via crooze.com (the “Site”) or related Crooze blogs. Therefore, we encourage you to check the date of these Terms whenever you visit the Site to see if these Terms have been updated. Your continued access or use of any portion of the Service constitutes your acceptance of such changes. If you don’t agree to any of the changes, we’re not obligated to keep providing the Service, and you must cancel and stop using the Service.
2. ACCESS TO THE SERVICE
You may use the Service, on a non-exclusive basis, solely in strict compliance with these Terms and all applicable laws.
3. YOUR ACCOUNT
To obtain access to certain Services, you require an account with Box and Crooze. To access our Service, your Box and Crooze account must be active. If you are unable to access your Box account, you will not be able to access our Service.
Only you may use your Crooze account. You must keep your Box account and passwords confidential and not authorize any third party to access or use the Service on your behalf. Crooze will not be liable for any loss or damage arising from any unauthorized use of your accounts.
If you have a business or enterprise account on our Service, the administrator of your account will be able to manage your account and remove your access.
4. CONSENT TO ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS AND SOLICITATION
By registering with Crooze, you understand that we may send you communications or data regarding the Services, including but not limited to: (a) notices about your use of the Services, including any notices concerning violations of use; (b) updates; and (c) promotional information and materials regarding Crooze’s products and services, via electronic mail.
Documents and metadata added or accessed through our service are stored in Box. That content is governed by Box ‘s Terms of Service. Please refer to Box Terms of Service for details. Other content added using our service is governed by this agreement.
Except for material that we license to you, we don’t claim ownership of any Content that is transmitted, stored, or processed in your account(s). We also don’t control, verify, or endorse the Content that you and others make available on the Service.
We may provide functions that allow you to control who may access your Content. If you enable the features that allow you to share the Content with others, anyone you’ve shared Content with (including the general public, in certain circumstances) may have access to your Content. Note: In our Kanbans Service, we provide functions that allow you to control who may access your Content. Using those functions your allowed to update the permission in Box as well. Inviting users to a board may also change the access permissions in Box. Invited users may have access to the board and any content in Box folder associated with the board. Crooze DOES NOT recommend that you store personal information on our service.
You hereby grant Crooze and its contractors the right to transmit, use and disclose content posted on the Service solely to the extent necessary to provide the Service, as otherwise permitted by these Terms, or to comply with any request of a governmental or regulatory body (including subpoenas or court orders), as otherwise required by law.
You represent and warrant that: (a) you have all the rights in the Content necessary for you to use the Service and to grant the rights in this Section; and (b) the storage, use or transmission of the Content doesn’t violate any law or these Terms. You will: (a) be solely responsible for the nature, quality and accuracy of the Content; (b) ensure that the Content (including the storage or transmission thereof) complies with these Terms and any and all applicable laws, and regulations; (c) promptly handle and resolve any notices and claims relating to the Content, including any notices sent to you by any person claiming that any Content violates any person’s rights, such as take-down notices pursuant to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act and any other notices; and (d) maintain appropriate security, protection and backup copies of the Content, which may include, your use of additional encryption technology to protect the Content from unauthorized access. Crooze will have no liability of any kind as a result of the deletion of, correction of, destruction of, damage to, loss of or failure to store or encrypt any Content.
You must immediately notify Crooze in writing of any unauthorized use of: (a) any Content (b) any account; or (c) the Service that comes to your attention. In the event of any such unauthorized use by any third party that obtained unauthorized access through you, you will take all steps necessary to terminate such unauthorized use. You will provide Crooze with such cooperation and assistance related to any such unauthorized use as Crooze may reasonably request.
6. CONTENT STORED IN THE UNITED STATES
The Service is provided from the United States. By using and accessing the Service, you understand and consent to the storage and processing of the Content and any other personal information in the United States. Refer to the Box Terms of Service for details on where documents and metadata are stored.
7. TERM AND TERMINATION / SUSPENSION
You may elect one of the following subscription plans and billing options:
- A monthly subscription plan (“Monthly Subscription Plan”). The subscription period for the Monthly Subscription Plan will be one month and will automatically renew unless you cancel your Monthly Subscription Plan in accordance with these Terms at least three (3) business days prior to the renewal date. You will be billed monthly for the Monthly Subscription Plan on or about the same day each month until such time that you cancel your Monthly Subscription Plan.
- An annual subscription plan (“Annual Subscription Plan”). The subscription period for the Annual Subscription Plan will be one year and will automatically renew each year on the anniversary of your Annual Subscription Plan unless you cancel your Annual Subscription Plan in accordance with these Terms at least ten (10) days prior to your renewal date. You will be billed annually for the Annual Subscription Plan on or about the same day each year until such time that you cancel your Annual Subscription Plan. For the avoidance of doubt, please note, you will not be permitted to cancel, reduce the number of seats, or downgrade the Crooze Service you have selected until the anniversary of your Annual Subscription Plan. There will be no refunds for Annual Subscription Plan payments.Please be certain you are committing to a one (1) year period if you select the Annual Subscription Plan. If you are not certain, we recommend choosing the Monthly Subscription Plan.
- If you select the Monthly Subscription Plan, you can switch to the Annual Subscription Plan at the end of your monthly plan. If you select the Annual Subscription Plan, you may not change to the Monthly Subscription Plan until the end of the one-year term of your Annual Subscription Plan.
We reserve the right, to temporarily suspend or terminate your access to the Service at any time in our sole discretion, with or without cause, with or without notice, and without incurring liability of any kind. For example, we may suspend or terminate your access to or use of the Service for: (a) the actual or suspected violation of these Terms; (b) the use of the Services in a manner that may cause Crooze to have legal liability or disrupt others’ use of the Services; (c) the suspicion or detection of any malicious code, virus or other harmful code by you or in your account; (d) scheduled downtime and recurring downtime; (e) use of excessive storage capacity or bandwidth; or (f) unplanned technical problems and outages. If, in Crooze’s determination, the suspension might be indefinite and/or Crooze has elected to terminate your access to the Service, Crooze will use commercially reasonable efforts to notify you through the Service and/or by email to the email address associated with your account. You acknowledge that if your access to the Service is suspended or terminated, you may no longer have access to the Content that is stored with the Service.
Upon termination by Crooze, for reasons other than cause, you may request access to your Content, which we will make available for an additional fee. You must make such request with five (5) days following termination. Otherwise, any Content you have stored with the Service will not be retrievable, and we will have no obligation to maintain any data stored in your account.
In addition to other termination provisions, if your account it not currently subject to a paid subscription plan with us, we at our discretion may terminate your account if: (a) you do not engage in any activity in your account within thirty (30) days after becoming a User; or (b) you do not engage in any activity in your account for any period of one hundred and twenty (120) consecutive days. In the event of such termination, any Content you may have stored will be lost.
8. ACCEPTABLE USE
You must not use the Service to harm others or the Service. For example, you must not use the Service to harm, threaten, or harass another person, organization, or Crooze and/or to build a similar service or website. You must not: damage, disable, overburden, or impair the Service (or any network connected to the Service); resell or redistribute the Service or any part of it; use any unauthorized means to modify, reroute, or gain access to the Service or attempt to carry out these activities; or use any automated process or Service (such as a bot, a spider, or periodic caching of information stored by Crooze) to access or use the Service. In addition, you promise that you will not and will not encourage or assist any third party to:
- modify, alter, tamper with, repair or otherwise create derivative works of any Software;
- reverse engineer, disassemble or decompile the software used to provide or access the Service, including the Software, or attempt to discover or recreate the source code used to provide or access the Service, except and only to the extent that the applicable law expressly permits doing so;
- sell, lend, rent, resell, lease, sublicense or otherwise transfer any of the rights granted to you with respect to the Services to any third party;
- remove, obscure or alter any proprietary rights notice pertaining to the Service;
- access or use the Service in a way intended to improperly avoid incurring fees or exceeding usage limits or quotas;
- use the Service in connection with the operation of nuclear facilities, aircraft navigation, communication systems, medical devices, air traffic control devices, real time control systems or other situations in which the failure of the Service could lead to death, personal injury, or physical property or environmental damage;
- use the Service to: (i) engage in any unlawful or fraudulent activity or perpetrate a hoax or engage in phishing schemes or forgery or other similar falsification or manipulation of data; (ii) send unsolicited or unauthorized junk mail, spam, chain letters, pyramid schemes or any other form of duplicative or unsolicited messages, whether commercial or otherwise; (iii) store or transmit inappropriate Content, such as Content: (1) that is obscene or not in good taste, (2) containing any material that encourages conduct that could constitute a criminal offense, or (3) violates or infringes or promotes the violation or infringement of another’s rights, including intellectual property; (iv) contains any viruses, timebombs, cancelbots, spyware, Trojan horses, or other components designed to limit or harm the functionality of a computer; or (v) abuse, harass, stalk or otherwise violate the legal rights of a third party;
- interfere with or disrupt servers or networks used by Crooze to provide the Service or used by other users’ to access the Service, or violate any third party regulations, policies or procedures of such servers or networks or harass or interfere with another user’s full use and enjoyment of any Software or the Service;
- access or attempt to access Crooze’s other accounts, computer systems or networks not covered by these Terms, through password mining or any other means;
- cause, in Crooze’s sole discretion, inordinate burden on the Service or Crooze’s system resources or capacity; or
- share passwords or other access information or devices or otherwise authorize any third party to access or use the Software or the Service.
9. UPDATES TO THE SERVICE
Crooze reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to make necessary unscheduled deployments of changes, updates or enhancements to the Service at any time. We may add or remove functionalities or features, and we may suspend or stop a Service altogether.
If you receive Software from us, its use is governed in one of two ways: If you’re presented with license terms that you must accept in order to use the Software, those terms apply; if no license is presented to you, these Terms apply. We reserve all other rights to the Software.
We may automatically check your version of the Software. We may also automatically download to your computer or device new versions of the Software.
Any Software is licensed, not sold. Unless we notify you otherwise, the Software license ends when your Service ends. You must then promptly uninstall the Software, or we may disable it. You must not work around any technical limitations in the Software.
The Software is subject to applicable U.S. export laws and regulations. You must comply with all domestic and international export laws and regulations that apply to the Software. These laws include restrictions on destinations, end users, and end use. Without limitation, you may not transfer the Software or Service without U.S. government permission to anyone on U.S. government exclusion lists (see the Commerce Department’s compliance list at http://www.bis.doc.gov/index.php/policy-guidance/lists-of-parties-of-concern. You represent and warrant that you’re not on any of those lists or under the control of or an agent for anyone on those lists or the entities listed above.
11. THIRD PARTY SERVICES AND CONTENT
All transactions using Crooze’s services are between the transacting parties only. The Services may contain features and functionalities linking you or providing you with certain functionality and access to third party content, including Web sites, directories, servers, networks, systems, information and databases, applications, software, programs, products or services, and the Internet as a whole; you acknowledge that we are not responsible for such content or services. We may also provide some content to you as part of the Services. However, Crooze is not an agent of any transacting party, nor or we a direct party in any such transaction. Any such activities, and any terms associated with such activities, are solely between you and the applicable third-party. Similarly, we are not responsible for any third party content you access with the Services, and you irrevocably waive any claim against us with respect to such sites and third-party content. Crooze shall have no liability, obligation or responsibility for any such correspondence, purchase or promotion between you and any such third-party. You should make whatever investigation you feel necessary or appropriate before proceeding with any online or offline transaction with any of these third parties. You are solely responsible for your dealings with any third party related to the Services, including the delivery of and payment for goods and services. Should you have any problems resulting from your use of any third party services, or should you suffer data loss or other losses as a result of problems with any of your other service providers or any third-party services, we will not be responsible unless the problem was the direct result of our breaches.
12. CROOZE PROPRIETARY RIGHTS
As between Crooze and you, Crooze or its licensors own and reserve all right, title and interest in and to the Service and all hardware, software and other items used to provide the Service, other than the rights explicitly granted to you to use the Service in accordance with this Terms. No title to or ownership of any proprietary rights related to the Service is transferred to you pursuant to these Terms. All rights not explicitly granted to you are reserved by Crooze. In the event that you provide comments, suggestions and recommendations to Crooze with respect to the Service (including, without limitation, with respect to modifications, enhancements, improvements and other changes to the Service) (collectively, “Feedback”), You hereby grant to Crooze a world-wide, royalty free, irrevocable, perpetual license to use and otherwise incorporate any Feedback in connection with the Service.
We retain the right to block or otherwise prevent delivery of any type of file, email or other communication to or from the Service as part of our efforts to protect the Service, protect our customers, or stop you from breaching these Terms.
14. NO WARRANTY
CROOZE PROVIDES THE SERVICE “AS IS”, “WITH ALL FAULTS” AND “AS AVAILABLE”. TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, CROOZE MAKES NO (AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ALL) REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, WHETHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTY THAT THE SERVICE WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED, ERROR-FREE OR FREE OF HARMFUL COMPONENTS, THAT THE CONTENT WILL BE SECURE OR NOT OTHERWISE LOST OR DAMAGED, OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, SATISFACTORY QUALITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT, AND ANY WARRANTY ARISING OUT OF ANY COURSE OF PERFORMANCE, COURSE OF DEALING OR USAGE OF TRADE. SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE FOREGOING EXCLUSIONS. IN SUCH AN EVENT SUCH EXCLUSION WILL NOT APPLY SOLELY TO THE EXTENT PROHIBITED BY APPLICABLE LAW.
To the extent permitted by law, You will defend Crooze against any cost, loss, damage, or other liability arising from any third party demand or claim that any Content provided by you, or your use of the Service, in breach of these Terms: (a) infringes a registered patent, registered trademark, or copyright of a third party, or misappropriates a trade secret (to the extent that such misappropriation is not the result of Crooze actions); or (b) violates applicable law or these Terms. Crooze will reasonably notify you of any such claim or demand that is subject to your indemnification obligation.
16. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY
TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, IN NO EVENT WILL CROOZE, ITS AFFILIATES, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES, AGENTS, SUPPLIERS OR LICENSORS BE LIABLE FOR (A): ANY INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, COVER OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR LOST PROFITS, REVENUE, GOODWILL, USE OR CONTENT) HOWEVER CAUSED, UNDER ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, CONTRACT, TORT, WARRANTY, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE, EVEN IF CROOZE HAS BEEN ADVISED AS TO THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, THE AGGREGATE LIABILITY OF CROOZE AND ITS AFFILIATES, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES, AGENTS, SUPPLIERS OR LICENSORS, RELATING TO THE SERVICES WILL BE LIMITED TO THE GREATER OF AN AMOUNT EQUAL TO THREE MONTHS OF YOUR SERVICE FEE FOR THE SERVICE OR FIVE DOLLARS ($5.00). THE LIMITATIONS AND EXCLUSIONS ALSO APPLY IF THIS REMEDY DOES NOT FULLY COMPENSATE YOU FOR ANY LOSSES OR FAILS OF ITS ESSENTIAL PURPOSE. SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE LIMITATION OF INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL OR OTHER DAMAGES. IN SUCH AN EVENT THIS LIMITATION WILL NOT APPLY TO YOU TO THE EXTENT PROHIBITED BY LAW.
17. CONTRACTING PARTY; GOVERNING LAW; LOCATION FOR RESOLVING DISPUTES
You are contracting with Crooze Corporation a Delaware company. The laws of the State of Delaware, U.S.A. govern the interpretation of these Terms and apply to claims for breach of these Terms, regardless of conflict of laws principles.. If you live outside the United States, you irrevocably consent to the exclusive jurisdiction and venue of the state of Delaware, USA, for all disputes arising out of or relating to these Terms. Crooze may assign this contract to another entity at any time with or without notice to you.
We may send you, in electronic form, information about the Service, additional information, and information the law requires us to provide. We may provide required information to you by email at the address you specified when you signed up for the Service or by access to a website that we identify. Notices emailed to you will be deemed given and received when the email is sent. If you don’t consent to receive notices electronically, you must stop using the Service. You may provide legal noticed to us via email to email@example.com. Any such notice, in either case, must specifically reference that it is a notice given under these Terms.
19. FEES & PAYMENTS
The fees applicable for the Service (“Fees”) are available on the Site and/or in Crooze’s then-current published price list. The price stated for the Service excludes all taxes and charges, unless stated otherwise. You’re responsible for any taxes and for all other charges incidental to using the Services (for example, data charges and currency exchange settlements). You will pay the Fees in the currency Crooze quoted for your account. Crooze reserves the right to change the quoted currency at any time.
We’ll notify you in advance, either through the Service or to the email address you have most recently provided to us, if we change the price of the Service. If there’s a specific length and price for your Service offer already in effect, that price will remain in force for that time. After the offer period ends, your use of the Service will be charged at the then-current price. If your Service is on a period basis (for example, monthly) with no specific length, we’ll notify you of any price change at least 30 days in advance. If you don’t agree to these changes, you must cancel and stop using the Service via our Crooze Chargify customer portal or email firstname.lastname@example.org with cancellation confirmation no later than five (5) business days prior to the conclusion of your current payment term, whether monthly, yearly, or otherwise. If you cancel, your Service ends at the end of your current Service period or payment period. If you fail to cancel in accordance with these Terms, we will automatically renew the Service at the then-current price and for the same subscription period and will charge your credit card on file with us commencing on the first day of the renewal of the subscription period.
You must be authorized to use the credit card that you enter when you create a billing account. You authorize us to charge you for the Service using your credit card and for any paid feature of the Service that you choose to sign up for or use while these Terms are in force. We may bill: (a) in advance; (b) at the time of purchase; (c) shortly after purchase; or (d) on a recurring basis for subscription Services (e) by invoice. Also, we may charge you up to the amount you’ve approved, and we’ll notify you in advance of the difference for recurring subscription Services. We may bill you simultaneously for more than one of your prior billing periods. We may automatically renew your Service and charge you for any renewal term. All paid accounts are due the date the invoice is posted on your account. Except as specifically set forth in this section, all Services are prepaid for the period selected (monthly, yearly or otherwise) and are non-refundable. This includes accounts that are renewed.
You must keep all information in your billing account current. You can access and modify your billing account information using the on the Site. You may change your payment method at any time. If you tell us to stop using your payment method and we no longer receive payment from you for the paid Service, we may cancel that Service. Your notice to us will not affect charges we submit to your billing account before we reasonably could act on your request.
Except as prohibited by law, we may assess a late charge if you do not pay on time. You must pay these late charges when we bill you for them. The late charge will be the lesser of 1 percent of the unpaid amount each month or the maximum rate permitted by law. We may use a third party to collect past due amounts. You must pay for all reasonable costs we incur to collect any past due amounts, including reasonable attorneys’ fees and other legal fees and costs. We may suspend or cancel your Service if you fail to pay in full on time.
Entire Agreement These Terms apply to the maximum extent permitted by relevant law. If a court holds that we cannot enforce a part of these Terms as written, you and we will replace those terms with similar terms to the extent enforceable under the relevant law, but the rest of these Terms will remain in effect. This is the entire contract between you and us regarding the Service. It supersedes any prior contract or oral or written statements regarding your use of the Service.
20.2. Assignment and transfer
We may assign, transfer, or otherwise dispose our rights and obligations under this contract, in whole or in part, at any time without notice. You may not assign this contract or transfer any rights to use the Service.
20.3. Independent Contractors; No third-party beneficiaries
Crooze and you are not legal partners or agents; instead, our relationship is that of independent contractors. This contract is solely for your and our benefit. It is not for the benefit of any other person, except for permitted successors.
Claims must be filed within one year. You must bring any claim related to these Terms or the Service within one year of the date you could first bring the claim, unless your local law requires a longer time to file claims. If it isn’t filed in time, the claim is permanently barred.
The failure of either party to insist upon or enforce strict performance of any of the provisions of these Terms or to exercise any rights or remedies under these Terms will not be construed as a waiver or relinquishment to any extent of such party’s right to assert or rely upon any such provision, right or remedy in that or any other instance; rather, the same will remain in full force and effect.
20.6. Government Use
If you are a U.S. government entity, you acknowledge that any Software and User Guides that are provided are “Commercial Items” as defined at 48 C.F.R. 2.101, and are being provided as commercial computer software subject to the restricted rights described in 48 C.F.R. 2.101 and 12.212.
In the case of inconsistency or conflict between the provisions these Terms and conditions of any purchase order, statement of work, acknowledgment, authorization, or other such document that may be issued by You with respect to the Services or Software, the provisions of these Terms will control.
You agree that Crooze may list You as a customer of Crooze so long as you are an active customer of the Service.
21. COPYRIGHT COMPLAINTS AND REMOVAL POLICY
Crooze does not tolerate content that appears to infringe any copyright or other intellectual property rights or otherwise violates these Terms and will respond to notices of alleged copyright infringement that comply with the law and are properly provided to us. Crooze reserve the right to delete or disable Content alleged to violate these Terms and to terminate repeat infringers. Send your notice of alleged copyright infringement to email@example.com: Federal law requires your DMCA Notice to include the following information:
- Identification of the copyrighted work that you claim has been infringed;
- Identification of the material, including URL, that you claim is infringing, with enough detail so that we may locate it;
- Your address, telephone number, and e-mail address;
- A statement declaring under penalty of perjury that (a) you have a good faith belief that the disputed use is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law; (b) the above information in your notice is accurate, and (c) you are the owner of the copyright interest involved or you are authorized to act on behalf of that owner; and
- Your physical or electronic signature.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY NOTICES
All contents of the Site and Services including but not limited to design, text, software, technical drawings, configurations, graphics, other files, and their selection and arrangement are: Copyright © Crooze, and/or the proprietary property of its suppliers, affiliates, or licensors. All Rights Reserved.
Crooze and the Crooze logo are including without limitation, either trademarks, service marks or registered trademarks of Crooze Corporation and may not be copied, imitated, or used, in whole or in part, without Crooze’s prior written permission or that of our suppliers or licensors. Other product and company names may be trade or service marks of their respective owners.
Crooze may have patents, patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter that is part of the Service. Unless we have granted you licenses to our intellectual property in these Terms, our providing you with the Service does not give you any license to our intellectual property. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved.